Aims and Methods of Trait Theory
write an article on aims and methods of trait theory Paper must be at least 1750 words. Please, no plagiarized work! Eysenck and Rachman developed the trait theory in the year 1965. The theory is based on an experimental approach in explaining individual differences (Butt, 2007). The aim of this theory is to bring forth general principles explaining why individuals behave differently depending on different situations or environments. For instance, Eysencks Personality Inventory is used to develop psychometric inventories, that are measures and determinants of personality traits. Thus, this can be regarded as a scientific approach, enabling prediction of how individuals will react in particular situations. Another theorist of trait theory like Kant regarded traits as categorical. They reasoned that individuals could be grouped to a single particular category and no individual could be belonging to a mixture of more than two categories.Nevertheless, Eysenck used criterion analysis and discredited this belief of Kants categorization suggesting a continuum of traits. He based his understanding that individuals would be measured on two continuums, neuroticism-stability, and extraversion-introversion. He ended to conclude that, an individuals score on these two continuums would allow for prediction hence their reaction in particular situations. Trait theorists believe a persons traits are relatively enduring and stable and differ among persons, and in most times influence behaviour (Kassin, 2003). They also believe that traits are determined biologically hence are genetically inherited. Thus, they conclude that there are stable differences between persons, which are unlikely to change over a situation or time (Butt, 2007).personal construct theory (PCT) on the other hand represents comprehensive, coherent psychology of personality having unique relevance for psychotherapy. Personal construct theory was developed and advanced in the year 1955 by George Kelly an American psychologist. The theory has been advance to include a variety of domains that comprise of education, business, organizational development, marketing, and cognitive science. Nevertheless, the theory still has focused predominantly on studying families, social groups, and individuals with particular stress on how people change and organize their opinions on self and the world in the field of counselling. The aim of PCT is gaining a comprehensive understanding of personal meaning, and lived experience by considering the different opinions of people. PCT considers people making sense and gaining an understanding of the world through the creation of a set of individual constructions based on personal experience (Butt, 2007).
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