Assignment: Facial Expression
Assignment: Facial Expression
Assignment: Facial Expression
John Baird and Gretchen Wieting recommend that organiza- tional managers use nonverbal behaviors that emphasize concern, respect, equality, and warmth—while avoiding behaviors that communi- cate coolness, disinterest, superiority, and disrespect.62 (See box 8.5 for a summary of nonverbal cues that communicate positive expectations.)
2. Input. In an organizational setting, positive expectations are also commu- nicated through the number and type of assignments and projects given employees. Those expected to perform well are given more responsibility, which creates a positive performance spiral. As employees receive more tasks and complete them successfully, they gain self-confidence and the confidence of superiors. These star performers are then given additional responsibilities and are likely to meet the new challenges as well.
3. Output. Those expected to reach high standards are given more oppor- tunities to speak, to offer their opinions, or to disagree. Superiors pay more attention to these employees when they speak and offer more assistance to them when they need to come up with solutions. This is similar to what happens in the classroom when teachers call on “high achievers” more than “low achievers,” wait less time for low achievers to answer questions, and provide fewer clues and follow-up questions to low achievers.63
4. Feedback. Supervisors give more frequent positive feedback when they have high expectations of employees, praising them more often for suc- cess and criticizing them less often for failure. In addition, managers pro- vide these subordinates with more detailed feedback about their performance. However, superiors are more likely to praise minimal perfor- mance when it comes from those labeled as poor performers. This rein- forces the perception that supervisors expect less from these followers.
Box 8.5 Nonverbal Cues that Communicate Positive Expectations64
Nonverbal Category Positive Behaviors
Time Don’t keep employees waiting, give adequate time, make frequent contacts.
Setting Meet in pleasant, attractive surroundings and avoid using furniture as a barrier.
Physical Proximity Sitting or standing close to an employee promotes warmth and decreases status differences.
Gestures Make frequent use of open palm gestures.
Head Movements Use head nods, but do not indicate suspicion by cocking the head or tilting it backward while the other person is speaking.
Facial Expression Smile frequently.
Eye Make frequent, direct eye contact.
Voice Combine pitch, volume, quality, and rate to communicate warmth. Avoid sounding bored or disinterested.
Hackman-Johnson 6E.book Page 262 Tuesday, March 12, 2013 12:54 PM
Leadership in Organizations 263
The Galatea Effect Our focus so far has been on the ways that leaders communicate their
expectations to followers. Once communicated, these prophecies can have a significant impact on subordinate performance. The same effects can be gener- ated by expectations that followers place on themselves, however. Earlier we noted the example of Israeli army trainees who performed up to instructor expectations. In a follow-up experiment, a psychologist told a random group of military recruits that they had high potential to succeed in a course. These trainees did as well as those who had been identified as high achievers to their instructors. In this case, the trainees became their own “prophets.”65 The power of self-expectancies has been called the Galatea effect in honor of Galatea, the statue who came to life in the story of Pygmalion.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
- The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
- Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
- Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
- One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
- I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
- Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
- In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
- Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
- Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
- Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
- Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
- I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
- I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
- As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
- It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
- For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
- Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
- Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
- Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
- The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
- Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
- If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
- I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
- As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
- Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
- Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
- Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.