Assignment: HRT

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Assignment: HRT

Assignment: HRT

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Ms. Martin is a 55-year-old woman who has been on HRT for 4 years. HRT was prescribed because Ms. Martin was experiencing vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Her last mammogram was 2 years ago and last pap was 5 years ago. Ms. Martin made an appointment with her nurse practitioner to discuss discontinuing HRT after hearing and reading news reports about the dangers associated with the medication. Except for the HRT, Ms. Martin is taking no medication other than a daily vitamin. She had a tubal ligation after the birth of her third child but has had no other surgeries or history of any medical conditions. Her father had cardiovascular disease and died of a myocardial infarction at 77 years of age. Her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer at 81 years of age. Ms. Martin does not smoke and rarely drinks alcohol. She likes to work in her garden but is not involved in a formal exercise program. She has gained about 10 pounds since menopause.

 

  • Discuss the recommended screening tests, using the latest evidence based guidelines that Ms. Martin should have.
  • What health promotion, maintenance, and prevention education would be important to provide to Ms. Martin?
Vasomotor symptoms are those that develop as result of blood vessel constriction or dilation.
Hot flushes, nocturnal sweats, heart palpitations, and blood pressure fluctuations are among them. 
Hormonal variations impact the processes that control blood pressure and temperature control, which is the most likely cause of these symptoms after menopause.
Hot flashes affect up to 75% of females in the United States after menopause, according to the North American Menopause Society. 
Hot flashes can persist anywhere from months to years, but they can endure up to 10 years.
Menopause normally begins between the ages of 45 and 58 in the United States. 
Menopause occurs at an average age of 52 years. 
Source you can trust. 
Menopause begins 12 months after woman’s last menstrual.
Hot flashes and other symptoms can begin during perimenopause, when menstruation is still ongoing, or after woman’s periods have ended. 
These symptoms do not affect everyone, and their severity varies from person to person.
Menopause might begin earlier in life for certain women. 
This may occur naturally in some circumstances, but it may also occur as result of surgery, health condition, or some types of medical therapy in others.
Symptoms
Menopausal hot flashes are common vasomotor symptom.
Menopause is natural process, not disease. 
Most ladies will go through this transition at some point in their lives. 
The hormonal changes that it causes, on the other hand, can cause distinct symptoms.
Hormones influence how the cardiovascular system functions. 
Their fluctuating levels can have an impact on the cardiovascular system. 
They can also disrupt the neurological system’s ability to regulate body temperature.
The most common vasomotor symptom is hot flashes. 
sudden sense of heat affects the chest, neck, and face during hot flash. 
It’s possible that the skin in these locations will turn red.
person may also have the following symptoms in addition to heat flashes:
Sweating, including night sweats, can cause sleep disruptions.
heart palpitations anxiety
People usually experience these symptoms for roughly year. 
Females, on the other hand, may continue to have them for several years.
If menopause occurs as result of treatment, such as chemotherapy, the person may notice that the symptoms associated with it go away and menstruation resumes once the treatment is over. 
This, however, is not the case for everyone. 
Is this hot flash or something else entirely?
To learn more about how hot flash feels, go here.
Causes
Hot flashes are most likely caused by neurovascular alterations, which occur when the component of the nervous system that controls circulation changes.
Hot flashes are thought to be caused by changes in the portion of the brain that regulates body temperature, according to experts. 
Sudden reductions in estrogen levels may be the cause, but the exact significance of this hormone is unknown.
Although there is evidence that supplementing with estrogen can help reduce symptoms, scientists have yet to discover link between circulating hormone levels and the intensity of symptoms.
Hot flashes can be triggered by variety of factors, including:
consuming hot meals
consuming coffee or alcoholic beverages
wearing clothing that is too warm for the temperature in the surroundings
Various medical treatments and therapies, as well as some health disorders, such as diabetes, tuberculosis, or an overactive thyroid, are made more difficult by smoking.
They can, however, arise without any apparent cause.
Hot flashes are side effect of some cancer treatments, regardless of age or gender.
Factors that are at risk
Although vasomotor symptoms are typical after menopause, they do not affect everyone.
Smoking is one factor that may raise the risk.
Obesity and Trusted Source are two terms that can be used interchangeably.
According to the National Institute on AgingTrusted Source, hot flashes may last longer in African American and Hispanic women than in white or Asian women.
Complications
Although hot flashes and sweating are rarely hazardous, they can cause pain and make some people feel self-conscious about their symptoms.
Hot flashes may not be related to menopause in some circumstances, but rather to problems with the neurological or vascular systems. 
These hot flashes could indicate changes in your body that could lead to additional issues including cardiovascular disease or dementia.
People should visit doctor if they have any of the following symptoms:
They have other symptoms, such as diarrhea, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, or general feeling of being unwell; they are at risk of another health condition, such as diabetes or thyroid problems; they have other symptoms, such as diarrhea, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, or general feeling of being unwell; they have other symptoms, such as diarrhea, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, or general feeling of being unwell; they are at risk of another health condition
Seeing doctor can assist person in receiving treatment to improve their comfort and anxiety levels. 
If other underlying causes of vasomotor symptoms are present, doctors may be able to detect them.
How long do the signs and symptoms of menopause last? 
Here’s how to find out.
Treatment
To help people manage hot flashes, doctor may prescribeTrusted Source medicine.
Hormone therapy is type of treatment that uses hormones to
Hormone therapy seeks to bring the body’s hormone levels back into equilibrium. 
It can help with hot flashes and other symptoms, but it isn’t for everyone because it can have negative side effects.
Hormone therapy may not be recommended for those who have history of or are at high risk of certain illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, breast cancer, uterine cancer, or liver disease.
Antidepressants are medications that are used to treat depression.
Antidepressants like paroxetine (Paxil) may be beneficial. 
For menopause symptoms, doctor will normally prescribe lesser dosage than for depression. 
Headaches, nausea, and sleepiness are all possible side effects.
Many women experience minimal symptoms during menopause and do not need to take any drugs. 
An individual should explore the advantages and disadvantages of taking drugs with their doctor.
Remedy for healthy lifestyle
Some lifestyle changes may aid in the management of hot flashes during menopause.
These are some of them:
spicy foods, alcohol, and caffeine are all known causes.
wearing in layers so that it is easy to remove layer if heat flash happens ceasing smoking, if relevant, or avoiding secondhand smoke
Carry water bottle with ice water to drink if hot flash occurs.
Using portable fan to keep the room cool at night avoiding exertion just before bedtime performing deep breathing and relaxation exercises eating healthy diet and receiving regular exercise achieving or maintaining modest weight
According to 2012 studyTrusted Source, women who reduced 10% or more of their body weight by dietary changes saw reduction or complete cessation of vasomotor symptoms after menopause. 
The researchers examined the information of 17,473 females.
Alternative therapies, such as black cohosh and dehydroepiandrosterone, are used by some patients.
For hot flashes, take (DHEA) or soy isoflavones. 
There is no proof that these will help, according to the National Institute on AgingTrusted Source, and their long-term effects are unknown.
Before utilizing any herbal therapies, vitamins, or other sorts of menopause medication, you should consult your doctor.
More advice on how to deal with hot flashes and night sweats can be found here.
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Outlook
Menopause is characterized by vasomotor symptoms, particularly hot flashes. 
They don’t affect everyone the same way, and they have various effects on different people.
Anyone who feels that vasomotor symptoms are having substantial impact on their daily life should consult doctor, who may be able to offer therapies or lifestyle modifications that can assist.
Find out what to expect during menopause in this article.
On April 22, 2020, medical review was completed.
sourcesexpandedMenopauseWomen’s Health/Gynecology
Medical News Today adheres to stringent sourcing criteria, relying solely on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical publications and societies for its content. 
We don’t use tertiary sources. 
Primary sources, such as research, scientific references, and data, are linked inside each article and included in the resources section at the bottom. 
Read our editorial policy to discover more about how we make sure our material is accurate and up to date.
G. Bachmann and N. J. Doty (2010). 
Menopause.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/vasomotor
What can do about hot flashes? 
(2017).
https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/hot-flashes-what-can-i-do
Menopause causes hot flushes (2018).
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/hot-flushes/
C. H. Kroenke, et al (2012). 
The Women’s Health Initiative looked into the effects of dietary intervention and weight loss on vasomotor symptoms.
Menopause basics can be found at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428489/. (2019).
https://www.womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics
Hot flashes are common symptom of menopause (n.d.).
https://www.menopause.org/for-women/menopause-faqs-hot-flashes
V. M. Miller, et al (2018). 
Is it symptom of menopause or manifestation of neurovascular dysregulation that menopausal “hot flashes” are called that?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5970009/
S. Saccomani et al (2017). 
Is obesity linked to higher incidence of hot flashes in women in their forties and fifties? 
[Abstract] population-based study
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28562488
R. L. Smith, et al (2015). 
Is it true that stopping smoking lowers the risk of heat flashes in middle age? 
An examination of the data throughout time.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546860/
Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT — Medically evaluated by Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT — Written by Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA — Last updated on April 22, 2020
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