Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis from the DSMV

Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis from the DSMV

Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis from the DSMV

This paper will focus on clinical psychology and give you the opportunity to focus on a particular diagnosis from the DSMV.

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Choose a clinical diagnosis and describe the problem (symptoms, etiology, onest)

Provide overall prevalence information

Discuss prevalence information for ethnic differences

Discuss prevalence information for gender differences

Provide a treatment plan, include medications if its relevant

Include

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Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy TENTH EDITION

Gerald Corey

Behavior Therapy

Four Areas of Development (slide 1 of 2)

1. Classical (or Respondent) Conditioning

Refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a response through pairing

2. Operant Conditioning

Focuses on a type of learning in which behaviors are influenced mainly by the consequences that follow them

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (1)

Four Areas of Development (slide 2 of 2)

3. Social-Learning (or Social-Cognitive) Approach

Gives prominence to the triadic reciprocal interaction between an individual’s behavior, personal factors, and the environment

4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Social skills training, cognitive therapy, stress management training, mindfulness, and acceptance-based practices all represent the cognitive behavioral tradition

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 ()

Behavior Therapy (slide 1 of 3)

A set of clinical procedures relying on experimental findings of psychological research

Based on principles of learning that are systematically applied

Focus is on the client’s current problems and on assessing behavior through observation or self-monitoring

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (3)

Behavior Therapy (slide 2 of 3)

Largely action-oriented and educational – therapist teaches clients skills of self-management

Behavior is something that can be operationally defined; it includes overt actions as well as internal processes

Change can take place without insight into underlying dynamics and the origins of a psychological problem

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (4)

Behavior Therapy (slide 3 of 3)

Behaviorists ask: “What treatment, by whom, is the most effective for this individual with that specific problem and under which set of circumstances?”

The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase personal choice and to create new conditions for learning

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (5)

Functional Assessment of Behavior

A-B-C model

Antecedent(s)

Behavior(s)

Consequence(s)

BehaBvior

Consequence

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (6)

A

B

C

8

Operant Conditioning

Positive and negative reinforcement

Goal: to increase target behavior

Extinction

Goal: to decrease or eliminate a behavior by withholding reinforcement from a previously reinforced response

Positive and negative punishment

Goal: to decrease target behavior

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (7)

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

Progressive muscle relaxation is a popular method of teaching people to cope with the stresses produced by daily living

Relaxation becomes a well-learned response, which can become a habitual pattern if practiced daily

Relaxation procedures have been applied to a variety of clinical problems ranging from chronic pain to panic disorder

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (8)

Systematic Desensitization

Based on classical conditioning, SD was developed by Joseph Wolpe

SD is effective in reducing maladaptive anxiety and treating anxiety-related disorders, particularly specific phobias

SD entails relaxation training, development of a graduated anxiety hierarchy, and presentation of hierarchy items while client is deeply relaxed

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (9)

Exposure Therapies (slide 1 of 2)

In Vivo Desensitization

Involves client exposure to the actual anxiety-evoking events rather than simply imagining these situations

Flooding

In vivo or imaginal exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli for a prolonged period of time without the feared consequences

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (10)

Exposure Therapies (slide 2 of 2)

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

An exposure-based therapy

Involves imaginal flooding, cognitive restructuring, and the use of rhythmic eye movements and other bilateral stimulation to treat traumatic stress disorders

Extensive research has validated EMDR

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (11)

Counseling Theories and Technology Discussion Assignment – Social Skills Training

Helps clients develop and achieve skills in interpersonal competence

May involve behavioral procedures (e.g., psychoeducation, modeling, behavior rehearsal, and feedback)

If clients can correct their problematic behaviors in practice situations, they can then apply these new skills in daily life

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (12)

Self-Management Programs

In S-M programs people make decisions concerning specific behaviors they want to control or change

The process includes selecting goals, translating goals into target behaviors, self-monitoring, working out a plan for change, and evaluating an action plan

S-M strategies have been successfully applied to many populations and problems

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (13)

Counseling Theories and Technology Discussion Assignment – Multimodal Therapy

A comprehensive, systematic, holistic approach to behavior therapy developed by Arnold Lazarus

Grounded in social-cognitive theory

Applies diverse behavioral techniques to a wide range of problems; it encourages technical eclecticism

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (14)

Multimodal Therapy: BASIC ID

The complex personality of human beings can be divided into seven major areas of functioning:

B = behavior

A = affective responses

S = sensations

I = images

C = cognitions

I = interpersonal relationships

D = drugs, biological functions, nutrition, and exercise

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (15)

Dialectical Behavior Therapy

A promising blend of behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques for treating borderline personality disorders and other issues

Includes both acceptance-oriented and change-oriented strategies

Skills are taught in four modules: mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (16)

Counseling Theories and Technology Discussion Assignment – Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

Assists people in learning to live more fully in the present

The skills taught in MBSR include sitting meditation and mindful yoga, aimed at cultivating mindfulness

Didactic instruction is minimized and experiential learning and self-discovery are emphasized

MBSR is not a form of psychotherapy per se, but it can be an adjunct to therapy

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (17)

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

An 8-week group treatment program adapted from MBSR that includes components of CBT

Clients learn to respond in skillful and intentional ways to their automatic negative thought patterns

Kindness and self-compassion are essential components of MBCT

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (18)

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

ACT involves fully accepting present experience and mindfully letting go of obstacles

There is little emphasis on changing the content of a client’s thoughts. Instead, the emphasis is on acceptance (nonjudgmental awareness) of cognitions

The goal of ACT is to allow for increased psychological flexibility

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (19)

Application to Group Counseling (slide 1 of 2)

Treatments

Rely on empirical support and tend to be brief

Emphasize self-management skills and thought restructuring

Leaders

Use a brief, directive, psychoeducational approach

Conduct behavioral assessments

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (20)

Application to Group Counseling (slide 2 of 2)

Leaders and members

Create collaborative, precise treatment goals

Devise a specific treatment plan to help each member meet goals

Objectively measure treatment outcome

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (21)

Strengths from a Diversity Perspective

Behavior therapy may appeal to culturally diverse clients for many reasons (e.g., it emphasizes objectivity, tasks, cognition, behavior, action, coping, problem-solving, etc.)

Behavior therapy focuses on environmental, social, and political conditions that contribute to a client’s problems

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (22)

Limitations from a Diversity Perspective

Some counselors may use a variety of techniques in narrowly treating specific behavioral problems

Therapists who do not assess the interpersonal and cultural dimensions of the client’s problem may not adequately prepare him/her for the consequences of newly acquired social skills

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (23)

Contributions of Behavior Therapy

The specificity of the behavioral approaches helps clients translate unclear goals into concrete plans of action

A wide variety of specific behavioral techniques have been developed

Behavioral interventions have been subjected to more rigorous evaluation than other approaches

Behavior therapy emphasizes ethical accountability

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy – Chapter 9 (24)

Please watch the video “I am my Connectome (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.” By Sebastian Seung.

Video Description: Sebastian Seung is mapping a massively ambitious new model of the brain that focuses on the connections between each neuron. He calls it our “connectome,” and it’s as individual as our genome — and understanding it could open a new way to understand our brains and our minds.

Discussion Directions: In your response, discuss your thoughts on what Seung is describing. Summarize his key points. What are strengths/limitations of his findings? How do you feel about his statements? Do you agree or disagree with his view?

Note: Your initial post must be at least 200 words in length. Post must be several sentences in length to be considered for credit. Support your points with information from the textbook or external educational sources. Be sure to cite your sources in APA formatting. Discussion – I am my Connectome Assignment Paper

Posted

Directions: Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling, and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double‐spaced pages; refer to the “Format Requirementsʺ page located at the beginning of this learning guide for specific format requirements.

Most psychologists today agree that it is important to look at the biological, psychological, and social factors that are involved with the etiology and treatment of mental disorders. The Diathesis-Stress model proposes that genetic and/or psychological vulnerabilities, combined with individual or environmental stressors, leads to distress and/or dysfunction and the possible development of psychological disorders.

For this assignment, you will select two of the disorders we have discussed in Lessons 2, 3, and 4 (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, etc.) and discuss the following.

  • Symptomology – Give a thorough description of the specific characteristics of two (2) disorders.
  • Etiology – Discuss the etiology of the disorders from a diathesis-stress model perspective. Include biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the disorder
  • Treatment – Describe two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder.

Grading Rubric – Assignment 04 – S07 Abnormal Psychology Paper

Please refer to the rubric on the next page for the grading criteria for this assignment.

25 points20 points15 points10 points

The student provides a clear description of the symptomology of two (2) psychological disorders.

The student provides a mostly clear description of the symptomology of two (2) psychological disorders.

The student provides a somewhat clear description of the symptomology of two (2) psychological disorders.

The student provides a poor description of the symptomology of two psychological disorders.

25 points20 points15 points10 points

The student provides a clear description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.

The student provides a mostly clear description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.

The student provides a somewhat clear description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.

The student provides a poor description of biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of the two (2) psychological disorders chosen.

25 points20 points15 points10 points

The student provides a clear description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).

The student provides a mostly clear description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).

The student provides a somewhat clear description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).

The student provides a poor description of two (2) treatment approaches for each disorder (4 total).

10 points 8 points 5 points 2 points

Student makes no errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

Student makes 1-2 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

Student makes 3-4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

Student makes more than 4 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content.

15 points 12 points 8 points 5 points. Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis from the DSMV

The paper is written in proper format. All sources used for quotes and facts are credible and cited correctly. Excellent organization, including a variety of thoughtful transitions.

The paper is written in proper format with only 1-2 errors. All sources used for quotes and facts are credible and most are cited correctly. Adequate organization includes a variety of appropriate transitions.

The paper is written in proper format with only 3-5 errors.

Most sources used for quotes and facts are credible and cited correctly. Essay is poorly organized, but may include a few effective transitions.

The paper is not written in proper format. Many sources used for quotes and facts are less than credible (suspect) and/or are not cited correctly. Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis from the DSMV

Essay is disorganized and does not include effective transitions.

Key symptoms of two (2) disorders (25 Points)

Discuss the etiology of both disorders according to the diathesis-stress model (25 Points)

Discuss two (2) treatment approaches for both disorders (25 Points)

Mechanics – Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling (10 Points)

Format – APA Format, Citations, Organization,

Transitions (15 Points). Clinical Psychology: Diagnosis from the DSMV.

 

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