Answer 4 of the following questions (if you answer more than four, only your first four responses will be graded): 1.Describe the major criticisms of Sutherland’s differential association theory and assess the extent to which Akers’ social learning theory overcame these criticisms 2. Criminology textbooks tend to get thicker and heavier with each subsequent edition. New theories are added, but none are removed. Can this situation be rectified with theoretical integration? 3. The U.S. criminal justice system has a wide reach, and its impact is not felt equally by race or class. 1 in 33 adults are under some form of criminal justice supervision. 1 in 10 black males age 30 to 34 are in prison or jail compared to 1 in 61 white males age 30 to 34 (Source: BJS report “Correctional Population in the United States, 2010.” NCJ-236319). 1 in 12 blacks will not be allowed to vote in the upcoming presidential election and in some states more than 20% of the black population is barred from voting due to felony disenfranchisement (Source: Jeff Manza and Christopher Uggen’s Locked Out). Interpret these facts from the perspective of one or more critical criminology or race theories (theories from Part VII or Part XV of the textbook). 4. How does life-course theory help us understand the fact that nearly all serious adult offenders were serious juvenile offenders yet most serious juvenile offenders do not become serious adult offenders? 5. Is Hirschi’s (1969) social control theory compatible with Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) general theory of crime? Why or why not? 6. How might criminal justice sanctions such as arrest and imprisonment increase individual criminal involvement? Identify at least two theories that would suggest this and assess their adequacy. 7. Several criminological theories attempt to explain variation in crime at the neighborhood level. Pick one such theory and explain the differences between structural and cultural factors in the explanation of crime at the neighborhood level using this theory. 8. Criminological theories have public policy implications. Contrast two theories: one which has unworkable or unrealistic policy implications and one which has reasonable policy implications
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