What’s the best way to keep intruders fromentering your home?• A: Put LEGO® bricks all over the floor!Warning • As I mentioned already, some ofthis content can be triggering for individuals who have endured trauma or have been victims of crime.• Please take care of yourself at all times. If you need to exit the class or turn off your camera at any point, please do so. Your well-being and safety are more important than anything.24-Hour Hotlin1.888. 288-9221Chapter 14: Preventing Victimization with Environmental CriminologyVictimology and Crime Prevention • Early victimologists concerned with describing thevictim’s role in a criminal event and the degree to which the victim was responsible Critiqued as “victim blaming”• Paradigm shift: Victimologists now work toward identifying risk factors for victimization and developing theories to explain how and why targets are selectedReview of Key Theoretical Perspectives of Environmental Criminology• Rational Choice Theory Emphasizes purposive decision making and bounded rationality• Crime Pattern Theory Elaborates on the movement patterns of offenders and the ways in which hot spots develop (i.e., nodes, paths, edges, awareness space)• Routine Activities Theory Focuses on the context of the crime event, particularly on the roles of key actors and places and the people and factors that influence and control the actors and settingsReview of Rational Choice Theory • Offenders’ decisions are based on weighing risks,rewards, and efforts• Three primary assertions:1) Offenders have goals in mind when they commit crimes; they take potential risks (costs) and rewards (benefits) into account2) Risks and rewards vary across different types of crime3) Offenders consider the setting in which the crime will occurReview of Crime Pattern Theory • Human behaviors show regularities when vieweacross time and space Individual offenders, decision rules, movement patterns related to places, crime concentrations• Crime events and criminal opportunities can result from routine, noncriminal patterns of behavior• Crime events can occur when offenders and targets converge in time and spacReview of Routine Activities Theory • When (1) a motivated offender and (2) a suitabletarget converge in (3) an environment lacking guardianship, then (4) an opportunity for victimization is created• Theory used to devise crime prevention strategies based on reducing opportunities for victimization Accomplished by manipulating one of the three essential elementsEnvironmental Criminology • Underlying principle By recognizing these three theoretical premises (rational choice theory, crime pattern theory, and routine activities theory), the environment or setting in which crime occurs can be changed so that criminal behaviors at these locations can be reduced• Three crime prevention perspectives based on environmental criminology:1) Defensible space2) Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)3) Situational crime prevention (SCP)1) Defensible Space • Developed by the architect Oscar Newman (1972)• Links criminal opportunities to characteristics of the “built environment”• Crime prevention can be accomplished by designing environments that strengthen places
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