MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion

MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion

MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion

Sacred Heart University DigitalCommons@SHU Nursing Faculty Publications College of Nursing 7-2014 Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Well-Being Audrey M. Beauvais Fairfield University Julie G. Stewart Sacred Heart University, Susan M. DeNisco Sacred Heart University, Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Medical Education Commons, and the Nursing Commons Recommended Citation Beauvais, Audrey, Julie G. Stewart, and Susan M. DeNisco. “Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Well-Being.” Journal of Christian Nursing 31.3 (2014): 166-171. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the College of Nursing at DigitalCommons@SHU. It has been accepted for inclusion in Nursing Faculty Publications by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@SHU. For more information, please contact, KEYWORDS: emotional intelligence, MSCEIT, nursing students, spiritual care, spiritual well-being, SWBS M any nurses indicate they are uncomfortable with spiritual care in the clinical setting. What factors are related to or might enhance nurses’ spiritual caregiving? In the last decade, researchers have identified relationships between ability and ease with spiritual care, and nurses’ spirituality, spiritual well-being, and emotional intelligence (Geula, 2004; Habib, Riaz, & Akram, 2012; Kaur, Singh, & Singh, 2012; King, Mara, & DeCicco, 2012; Pizarro & Salovey, 2002; Scheindlin, 2003; Tischler, Biberman, & McKeage, 2002). This study explores potential relationships between emotional intelligence and spiritual well-being in nursing students. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING The concept of emotional intelligence, first named by Salovey and Mayer (1990), was initially described as a group of interconnected abilities that assist with processing of information about emotions as a guide to cognition and behavior (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2008). Salovey and Mayer later revised their model, defining emotional intelligence as the capacity to reason with emotion in four areas: perceive emotion, integrate emotion in to thoughts, understand emotion, and manage emotion (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). By Audrey M. Beauvais, Julie G. Stewart, and Susan DeNisco Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Well-Being:

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Implications for Spiritual Care Audrey Beauvais, DNP, RN-BC, serves as the Director of the Undergraduate Nursing Program and is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Nursing at Sacred Heart University teaching in the first professional degree, masters, and doctor of nursing practice programs. Susan DeNisco, DNP, FNP-BC, CNE, serves as the ­Director of Graduate Nursing Programs and is an Associate Professor in the Department of Nursing at Sacred Heart University teaching in the masters and doctoral programs. Julie G. Stewart, DNP, FNP-BC, serves as the MSN Family Nurse Practitioner Track Assistant Director and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Nursing at Sacred Heart University teaching in the graduate programs. Accepted by peer review 7/26/2013. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Emotional intelligence gained the public attention in the mid-90s when the book Emotional Intelligence was released (Goleman, 1995). Goleman conceived emotional intelligence to be a mixed model that included social behaviors, traits, and competencies. Goleman broadened the definition of emotional intelligence as the ability to identify the feelings of self and others, to motivate oneself, and to adequately manage one’s emotions as well as the emotions in relationships (Goleman, 1998). Spiritual well-being implies the existence of an emotional relationship with God (Geula, 2004). Emotional relationship may be linked to emotional intelligence as relationship requires the ability to appreciate the feelings of others, to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships, and DOI:10.1097/CNJ.0000000000000074 2 JCN/Volume 31, Number 3 JCN0914_Spiritual_B_00037_Shipra.indd 2 26/04/14 3:01 AM EMOTIONA L ABSTRACT: Understanding factors that influence spiritual wellbeing may improve nurses’ spiritual caregiving.This study examined relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual wellbeing (SWB) in undergraduate and graduate nursing students.MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion

Using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), relationships were found between managing emotion and spiritual well-being, and managing emotion and existential well-being. Implications for education and practice are discussed. US IO A MAN GE EMOTIONA LI NT DERSTAND UN RE LIG JCN0914_Spiritual_B_00037_Shipra.indd 3 ELL BEING LW UA IT IAL NT e perhaps in a different manner (Tischler et al., 2002). It might be helpful to develop an overall understanding of the relationship among these factors. To date, only one study has examined the concepts of emotional intelligence and NCE E IG spiritual well-being together. L EL Habib et al. (2012) found SP that spiritual wellness CEIVE R E IR P mediated the relationEXI ship between emoST E tional intelligence and life satisfaction among nurses. One additional study by Hooda, Sharma, and Yadava (2011) examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and spiritual health (not spiritual to understand the to empathize as well as foster a sense well-being) among 300 adults connection between of social responsibility (Kaur et al., and reported a significant correlation perception, belief, and behavior 2012). In particular, certain emotional between spiritual health and several (Vaughn, 2002). intelligence abilities are seen as a components of emotional intelligence. Emotional regulation is at the general mechanism that serves a critical The purpose of this study was to core of positive personal growth and role in spiritual well-being (Pizarro & examine relationships between development, education, self-discipline, emotional intelligence and spiritual Salovey, 2002; Scheindlin, 2003; self-mastery, and development of Tischler et al., 2002). The two emowell-being in nursing students. A tional intelligence abilities identified as divine-like qualities (Guela, 2004). nurse’s spiritual well-being has been key components in spiritual well-being Pizarro and Salovey (2002) suggest that linked to his or her ability to care for one can increase the ability to engage are empathy and regulation of emotion. a patient’s spiritual needs (Stranahan, Salovey and Mayer (1990) identified in effective emotional regulation 2001; MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion

Tiew & Creedy, 2010); thus, through religious belief and participathe significant role of empathy in understanding factors that influence tion, which in turn may influence one’s spiritual well-being has the potential to emotional intelligence as empathy is spiritual well-being. Individuals with an essential factor in the assessment of improve nurses’ spiritual caregiving. spiritual well-being may have better others’ emotion (King et al., 2012). access to structured outlets such as They defined empathy as the capacity EI AND SWB IN NURSING confession, sharing troubles with clergy, STUDENTS to understand another’s emotions and or pastoral counseling for emotional to feel those feelings in oneself. Being Utilizing a descriptive correlational mindful of one’s thoughts and feelings disclosure and help with emotional design, a convenience sample of and developing empathy have likewise regulation. In addition, they may be undergraduate and graduate students involved in practices such as prayer, been noted as an integral part of was recruited from all nursing students meditation, and rituals like morning spiritual well-being (Vaughn, 2002). enrolled at a New England Catholic Empathy may be a product of spiritual devotions that change the intensity of university. At the time of the study the emotions and permit regulation of well-being and self-transcendence university had 244 undergraduate, (King et al., 2012).Vaughn suggests that feelings (Guela, 2004; Pizarro & 272 graduate, and 516 total students Salovey, 2002). developing empathy is an important enrolled in nursing programs. MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion

Power part of developing one’s inner spiritual analysis revealed that 109 subjects life, essentially connecting the emowere needed to assess for correlations EI AND SWB LINKAGES tional and spiritual skill sets. Spiritual between emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence and spiritual well-being relies on the ability to see well-being appear to aid in the develop- and spiritual well-being (Faul, things from different perspectives and ­Erdfelder, Buchner, & Lang, 2009). ment of similar competencies but EGRATE INT co UAL CA T I R RE I P S JCN/Julyl-September 2014 3 26/04/14 3:01 AM The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), and a background data sheet were used to assess participants’ emotional intelligence, spiritual well-being, and demographic characteristics. The MSCEIT is an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence containing 141 items and takes about 30 to 40 minutes to complete. The MSCEIT evaluates total and four branches of emotional intelligence: perceiving emotions (correctly identify how people are feeling), utilizing emotions to aid thought (create emotions, integrate feelings into the way you think), understanding emotions (understand the causes of emotion), and managing emotions (determine effective strategies that use emotions to help achieve goals rather than being used/controlled by emotions) (Caruso, 2009; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002; Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios, 2003). MSCEIT scores are reported on a scale that suggests level of emotional skill. A recommendation is made to: develop an emotional skill MSU Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Practice Discussion


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