Nature of Water

BIO 115 ONLINE BLOCK 4 TAKE-HOME TEST   Water   1.​Describe the polar nature of water.  Describe the structural features of the ​molecule that make it polar.       2.​What is hydrogen bonding in water?  How does this relate to surface tension ​that exists in a glass of water?         3.​Why did the first organisms that appeared on earth need to remain underwater? ​Why couldn’t they live on land?       4.​Describe:   ​-the process of biochemical synthesis     ​​-why is it sometimes called dehydration?     ​-the process of biochemical hydrolysis       Introduction to biomolecules   5.​What are the 4 major categories of biomolecules found in living systems?       Proteins   6.​Proteins are made of ___________________ strung together   7.​Draw a generic amino acid   8.​How are different amino acids structurally different from one another?       9.​Proteins have 4 levels of structural organization.  What are they?       10.​Amino acids in a protein are connected together by _______________ bonds   11.​What level of protein organization is represented below? ​     12.​What are the 2 most common secondary structures found in proteins?     ​-draw each below         13.​Draw a protein that has secondary structures within it and a tertiary structure. ​Label the secondary structure(s) and indicate the tertiary structure.             14.​Draw a protein with quaternary structure.           15.​What happens when a protein is denatured and what things can denature it?       16.​Do all amino acids possess the same number of carbons?   17.​Many proteins are enzymes.  What do enzymes do in biochemical systems?       18.​What is an enzyme’s active site?  What happens there?         19.​What nonprotein molecules often work with enzymes and from where are they ​derived?       CARBOHYDRATES   20.​All (or at least most) carbohydrate names have what suffix?  It is:   21.​What is the derivation of the term carbohydrate?  What are the name’s ​component parts?       22.​Carbohydrates have a category/group called the monosaccharides.     ​-draw a monosaccharide below           ​-why are they called monosaccharides?     23.​Draw a monosaccharide in its haworth projection below           24.​Name ________________ monosaccharides   ​-2 significant pentose​​​-2 significant hexose   25.​Monosaccharides are linked together to form a disaccharide.  How is this linkage ​formed?           26.​Draw an alpha disaccharide linkage bond and a beta disaccharide linkage bond.             ​-what is the biological significance of these 2 linkages?       27.​Name 3 significant disaccharides   28.​What population of humans worldwide is the most lactose tolerant?   29.​What causes lactose intolerance?     30.​What is the difference between a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, and a ​ polysaccharide?     31.​How are starch, cellulose and glycogen similar?     ​-how are they different?     ​-what is the function of each?   ​​-starch​​-cellulose​​-glycogen     32.​If mammals cannot break beta polysaccharide linkages, how is it possible for ​them to obtain calories from the cellulose that they eat?​       33.​Where do you find chitin in nature?   ​-is it a mono-, di-, or polysaccharide?   LIPIDS   34.​Draw a saturated fatty acid with 12 carbon atoms here       35.​What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid       ​-draw an unsaturated fatty acid below       36.​Draw a cis-unsaturated fatty acid and a trans-unsaturated fatty acid below.  Make ​a note of the structural differences between the two.             37.​Draw a triacylglyceride below and label it’s component parts               38.​What is the difference between a fat and an oil?  What do they have in common?         39.​Draw a picture of a phospholipid.  Label the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic ​portions       40.​Phospholipids are a common component of the cell _______________________   41.​The other class of lipids is the steroids.  Why do you think they are classified as ​lipids?     42.​What are examples of steroid-like lipids presented in class?       DNA – General   43.​Nucleic acids are made of long strings of nucleotides.  Draw a nucleotide and ​label its 3 components.         44.​What are the 4 nucleotides found in:   ​-DNA  –   ​-RNA  –   45.​What are 3 differences between DNA molecules and RNA molecules?       46.​This is a 1/2 of a strand of DNA:   ​AATCTGCGTCTGTCAGTTCGT   ​What is the 2nd. complementary strand?     47.​The nucleotide strands in the DNA molecule are antiparallel.  What does this ​mean?       48.​Why do they call DNA a double helix?       49.​Draw the new and improved, updated Central Dogma Theory of DNA and RNA ​function and interactions below–               DNA – Part 2   50.​What is transcription and where does it occur in a cell?     51.​The following 1/2 strand of DNA needs to be transcribed.  It will be used to make ​a protein.   ​AATCTGCGTCTGTCAGTTCGT   ​-what is the resultant mRNA molecule that will be produced?   ​-how many codons does the mRNA strand contain?   52.​After transcription in the nucleus, the mRNA travels to the cytoplasm to be used ​to make a protein by translation.  The following nucleic acid structures participate ​in translation-what are their names and their functions?   ​-tRNA  –   ​-rRNA  –   ​mRNA  –   53.​What is the composition and structure of a ribosome and what role does it play in ​translation?                   54.​The following is a double strand of DNA to be used to make a protein:     ​ATGATTCGCTCAATCGGA – sense strand ​TACTAAGCGAGTTAGCCT   ​-the sense strand will be transcribed   ​-here is the sense strand sequence divided into codons:   ​ATG   ATT   CGC   TCA   ATC   GGA   ​____  ____  ____   ____  ____   _____  -write the corresponds sequence in the mRNA     ​____  ____  ____   ____  ____   _____  -write the matching anticodon sequences of tRNA     ​-how many amino acids will be connected to make the corresponding protein?     55.​Briefly describe the step by step process of translation   ​                                             The cell membrane   56.​Illustrate the Fluid Mosaic Model of the typical cell membrane and label ​its components             57.​Why do they call it:   ​-fluid   ​-mosaic   58.​Define osmosis     59.​Define the process of:   ​-diffusion across a membrane     ​-facilitated transport across a cell membrane     ​-active transport across a cell membrane   60.​Define:   ​-exocytosis     ​-endocytosis   Cell structure and organelles   61.​What is the difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?     62.​What is apoptosis?  Under what conditions does it occur?

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