NURS 6521N – Anaphylactic Shock

NURS 6521N – Anaphylactic Shock

NURS 6521N – Anaphylactic Shock (this is part of a quiz)

Post an explanation of the physiological progression that occurs in anaphylactic shock. Then, describe the circumstances under which you would refer patients for emergency care versus treating as an outpatient. Finally, explain how the patient factors you selected might impact the process of anaphylactic shock.

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Sample solution

Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal, multi-organ system reaction caused by the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils (Kemp & Lockey, 2002).  It is a systemic, type I hypersensitivity reaction that occurs in sensitized individuals resulting in mucocutaneous, cardiovascular, and respiratory manifestations and can often prove to be a life threatening event.  The classic form involves prior sensitization to an allergen with later re-exposure, producing symptoms via an immunologic mechanism (Mustafa & Kaliner, 2018).  Anaphylactic shock refers to an episode of anaphylaxis where the person goes into a state of shock due to poor blood circulation that deprives the body of oxygen and nutrients.

NURS 6521N – Anaphylactic Shock

Pathophysiology

Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions result from systemic release of mediators from mast cells and basophils. Again, anaphylactoid reactions are chemically and clinically indistinguishable from anaphylactic reactions except that they are not IgE mediated. These mediators consist of preformed substances stored in the granules of mast cells and basophils (e.g., histamine, tryptase, heparin, chymase, and cytokines), as well as newly synthesized molecules that are principally derived from the metabolism of arachadonic acid (Kemp et al., 2002).

Anaphylactic shock reactions are similar to other forms of medical shock. In someone experiencing a severe allergic reaction while in a life-threatening situation, it might not be possible to distinguish anaphylaxis from other causes of shock. In most people, however, the condition is easily detected because of recent exposure to an allergen (Villines, Z., 2018).

Treatment

Conclusion

References

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NURS 6521N –

NURS 6521N – Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis

Review Chapter 37 in the Huether and McCance text and Chapter 24 in the McPhee and Hammer text. Identify the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Consider the similarities and differences of the disorders. Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the disorders, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the disorders.

Sample Solution

Osteoarthritis/ Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteomyelitis and rheumatoid arthritis are two of the most common musculoskeletal conditions affecting individuals across the United States. Distinguished by cartilage degeneration and bony overgrowth, osteomyelitis affects approximately 13.9% of adults who are ≥25 years of age.
Rheumatoid arthritis, unlike osteoarthritis, is an autoimmune condition characterized by inflammation, usually in bilateral joint, and systemic features, such as fatigue and fever (Dewing et al., 2012). Rheumatoid arthritis sufferers are typically younger than those who develop osteomyelitis, with rheumatoid arthritis occurring between 20 – 30 years of age, and the incidence peaking at 35 to 50 years of age (Dewing et al., 2012).

NURS 6521N – Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis

Pathophysiology
Although the primary manifestations of osteomyelitis and rheumatoid arthritis involve the joints, the underlying pathophysiology of each condition is distinct. Normally, cartilage undergoes a remodeling process, stimulated by joint movement or use (Hinton et al., 2002). In osteomyelitis, this process is altered by a combination of mechanical, cellular, and biochemical processes, resulting in abnormal reparation of cartilage and an increase in cartilage degradation (Hinton et al., 2002).
Osteomyelitis is primarily characterized by progressive cartilage loss, accompanied by an increased thickness of the subchondral plate, osteophytes (new bone at joint margins) and subchondral bone cysts (Goldring et al., 2006).

Treatment

Conclusion

References

 

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