Pathogens and Diseases

Write a 10 pages paper on pathogens and disease. The other stage of its lifecycle is in humans, where they have an incubation period of ~1–5 days. Once in the intestines, the bacteria reach the walls of the intestines and produce membrane pili for attachment to the wall, while simultaneously producing potent enterotoxin that binds onto the outer membrane of mucosa cells lining the intestines. This toxin leads to the overproduction of cAMP, which activates continuous pumping of Cl- into the small intestines, altering the ionic gradient and causing Na+ and water to be expelled into the small intestines (Michael & Spear, 2010: p51). It is this process that causes the production of painless, odorless, watery, and copious amounts of watery diarrhea.The mode of transmission for the Trichophyton fungus is via direct and indirect contact with lesions of the skin from infected fomites such as shower stalls and floors, animals, and people contaminated with desquamated epithelium. Additionally, the transmission may also occur through broken skin if the host has suppressed cell-mediated immunity. Walking on one’s bare feet increases the chance that one will be infected by the disease (Khan, 2011: p22). Once they are transmitted to the host, the fungi have an incubation period of between a few days to a few weeks, which is dependent on the host’s susceptibility.Outside the host, it can survive in various media and surfaces and can survive for up to two years at room temperature on skin scales (Campbell et al., 2013: p44). The fungi attach to the skin of the host, colonizing the keratinized surface, and using keratinase and elastase to invade the host’s epidermis. However, the fungi remain in the skin’s stratum corneum, which is not vascularised, evading the host’s immune. In the absence of nutrients necessary for Trichophyton metabolism, it enters a log phase, during which the fungi degrade keratin to form required proteins for reproduction and growth. After gaining sufficient nutrition, they enter the stationary phase, and the degradation of keratin slows down with the production of spores as in figure 2. The metabolic products of this process are what results in an inflammatory eczematous and allergic response characteristic of an athlete’s foot in the host (Khan, 2011: p22).

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