# PSY 210 Module 4 Assignment 2 Analyzing with Anova GCU

## PSY 210 Module 4 Assignment 2 Analyzing with Anova GCU

PSY 210 Module 4 Assignment 2 Analyzing with Anova GCU

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Submit your answers to the following questions using the ANOVA source table below. The table depicts a two-way ANOVA in which gender has two groups (male and female), marital status has three groups (married, single never married, divorced), and the means refer to happiness scores (n = 100):

1.What is/are the independent variable(s)? What is/are the dependent variable(s)?
2.What would be an appropriate null hypothesis? Alternate hypothesis?
3.What are the degrees of freedom for 1) gender, 2) marital status, 3) interaction between gender and marital status, and 4) error or within variance?
4.Calculate the mean square for 1) gender, 2) marital status, 3) interaction between gender and marital status, and 4) error or within variance.
5.Calculate the F ratio for 1) gender, 2) marital status, and 3) interaction between gender and marital status.
6.Identify the critical Fs at alpha = .05 for 1) gender, 2) marital status, and 3) interaction between gender and marital status.
7.If alpha is set at .05, what conclusions can you make?

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Source Sum of Squares (degrees of freedom [df]) Mean Square Fobt. Fcrit.
Gender 68.15 ? ? ? ?
Marital Status 127.37 ? ? ? ?
Gender * Marital Status (A x B) 41.90 ? ? ? ?
Error (Within) 864.82 ? ? NA NA
Total 1102.24 99 NA NA NA

Please Note: The table that you see in the assignment has been slightly modified from the one presented in the module notes since it is beyond the scope of this unit to have students calculate p values. Instead you are asked to calculate the F value and compare it to the critical F value to determine whether the test is significant or not.

### PSY 210 Assignment Personality Theory Activity

I have chosen to write first about the psychodynamic theories. I am in such aw over how Sigmund Freud even got his theories in the first place! The psychodynamic theories all have Mr. Freud to thank for all of its original ideas! The most interesting part of the psychodynamic theory, for me, was the part where it goes onto talk about the Oedipus and Electra complexes! I had never thought about it till now, but it is a good theory. I also think it would be really hard to prove as a theory! His theory on the psychosexual development is really “out there” to me! I do not like the idea of an infant controlling their sexual gratification and their nourishment by sucking. It just seems like a natural process to me. Maybe even a natural instinct to an infant! Maybe it is something that is stored in our sub-consciences as a natural instinct?

When it talks about the “human iceberg”, I feel more that this is a good theory and would love to talk more into the superego, ego, and id. It is really cool to see that we only use a part of our brain on a conscience level. There are so many theories out there that let us know that we only use a part of our brains, and it must of all originated from Sigmund Freud’s theories! Carl Jung theorized that we not only have a personal unconscious that hold all our repressed memories and such, but also a collective unconscious that contains primitive images that reflect the history of our species!

The second theory I would like to compare and contrast is the Trait theories! Psychologist Hans J. Eysenck came out with the Five Factor model. I really like the whole idea of our stableness and our unstableness being either or. Meaning; I like how it breaks down into groups of; introverted-stable/unstable, extroverted-stable-unstable. Cross-cultural research has found that these five factors appear to emerge in studies of personalities of many peoples, including Americans, Germans, Israelis, Portuguese, Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese (McCrae & Costa, 1997).  It is a common factor that we all seem to be included in! Not all researchers accept the Big Five model. Some believe that reducing human personality to a mere five dimensions fails to capture the fullness and richness of human personality or to account for differences in how individuals behave in specific environmental contexts (Epstein, 1996; Paunonen et al., 1998). I myself am a believer in the Big Five model, and think that it might find what divides as culturally. I think it might be a better way to understanding the human diversity!

The Trait theory is mainly descriptive and it is most of the time assumed that it is all your hereditary genes that deal with the developments of specific personality traits. Your genetic factors can make you the way you are, too! Your genes only help you to a large extent! I like all the different ideas that came from this theory, and I strongly agree with all the ones that were available for me to read. So I cannot really contrast the differences in this one!

Appendix C:

Axia College Material

Appendix C

Match the psychological theories with the appropriate statement(s):

__Psychodynamic Theory                   __Trait Theory

__Learning Theory                                __Sociocultural

__Humanistic Theory

1. Individualism versus collectivism-Sociocultural
1. Popular theorist Eysenck initiated the five-factor model. Trait Theory
1. The healthy personality is found in balancing the social self with the individual self. Learning Theory
1. Genetics determine the traits for a healthy personality, but how those traits are expressed are influenced by learning experiences, development of skills, and the ability to choose our own actions. Sociocultural Theory
1. Popular theorists include Maslow and Rogers. Humanistic Theory
1.  Popular theorists include Freud, Jung, and Erikson. Psychodynamic Theory
1. Social and cultural factors such as ethnicity, gender, culture, discrimination, and socioeconomic status influence one’s sense of self and his or her adjustment to society. Sociocultural Theory
1. Taken from the European philosophy of Existentialism. Humanistic Theory
1. Focus on the individuals’ capacity to build knowledge and adapt to the environments around them. Includes behaviorism and social-cognitive theory.  Learning Theory
1. Personality is characterized by a struggle between different elements within an individual’s personality. Behavior, thoughts, and emotions are the result of this inner struggle. Trait Theory
1. Consists of five major personality factors which are reasonably stable elements of personality. These factors include extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience. Trait Theory
1. Popular theorists include Pavlov and Skinner. Learning Theory
1. Idea of the healthy personality is the ability to love and work. Psychodynamic Theory
1. A healthy personality means knowing one’s self, making authentic choices which are consistent with goals, and the capability of making real changes in their lives. Trait Theory

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