Screen Time Article

Decreases in Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise ofSmartphone TechnologyJean M. Twenge and Gabrielle N. Martin San Diego State UniversityW. Keith Campbell University of GeorgiaIn nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991–2016 (N � 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psycho- logical well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Psychological well-being was lower in years when adolescents spent more time on screens and higher in years when they spent more time on nonscreen activities, with changes in activities generally preceding declines in well-being. Cyclical economic indicators such as unemployment were not signif- icantly correlated with well-being, suggesting that the Great Recession was not the cause of the decrease in psychological well-being, which may instead be at least partially due to the rapid adoption of smartphones and the subsequent shift in adolescents’ time use.Keywords: psychological well-being, self-esteem, birth cohort, social media, InternetSupplemental materials: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000403.suppCultures change through mechanisms including economic, tech- nological, and political trends, and this cultural change often impacts individuals (Markus & Kitayama, 2010; Oishi, Graham, Kesebir, & Galinha, 2013). This process of cultural evolution involves the transfer of information and can be shaped by ecolog- ical pressures affecting people’s lives (Varnum & Grossmann, 2017). Such cultural shifts may have a particularly strong impact on young people, whose worldviews are still forming (Stewart & Healy, 1989). Overall, a growing body of research supports the idea that cultural change leads to birth cohort and/or time period differences in characteristics such as empathy (Konrath, O’Brien, & Hsing, 2011), sexual behavior Twenge, Sherman, & Wells, 2017, job characteristics (Wegman, Hoffman, Carter, Twenge, & Guenole, 2017), and individualism (Grossmann & Varnum, 2015). Cultural changes may also affect psychological well-being (Oishi et al., 2013; Twenge, Sherman, & Lyubomirsky, 2016).In this paper, we seek to document recent trends in the psycho- logical well-being of adolescents and explore the cultural changes that may have produced them. We draw from Monitoring the Future (MtF), a large, nationally representative survey of Ameri-can 8th, 10th, and 12th graders conducted every year since 1991. With samples of same-age participants over many years, the time- lag method of this project allows the disentangling of age effects from those of cultural change (Schaie, 1965). Although any dif- ferences could be caused by either birth cohort (which only affects young people) or time period (which affects those of all ages), both birth cohort and time period effects capture cultural change (Campbell, Campbell, Siedor, & Twenge, 2015).We have two primary goals. First, we aim to document trends in adolescents’ psychological well-being. We conceptualize psycho- logical well-being as it is measured in this dataset, which includes self-esteem, self-satisfaction, domain satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness. Second, we explore possible mechanisms behind these trends. We focus on two primary possible mechanisms: economic conditions and screen time spent on electronic commu- nication such as social media, texting, and Internet use. The most severe economic recession since the Great Depression took place from 2007 to 2009; previous research has established the impor- tance of economic trends on shifts in the characteristics of indi- viduals (Cooper, 2011; Frasquilho et al., 2016). In addition, the 2007 introduction of smartphones allowed mobile and nearly con- stant access to the Internet, with the majority of Americans owning a smartphone by the end of 2012 (Smith, 2017). Several studies have linked new media screen time, including social media use, to lower psychological well-being (Huang, 2017; Kross et al., 2013; Shakya & Christakis, 2017), including among adolescents (Przy- bylski & Weinstein, 2017), although the latter paper found a curvilinear pattern with low levels of use, rather than nonuse, associated with the highest well-being.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Screen Time Article
From $8/Page
Order Essay
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 20% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with Toptutor4me
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 10k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Communications
Well done! I thank you very much!
Customer 452483, July 9th, 2021
Education
Thank you for your help
Customer 452555, February 16th, 2022
Introduction to Sociology
Thank you very much for all of your hard work!
Customer 452483, October 15th, 2021
Nursing
Excellent writing !! Definitely I will use your services again... Thank you.
Customer 452487, August 22nd, 2021
Nursing
Good job. Thank you
Customer 452487, September 16th, 2021
Healthcare Writing & Communications
Perfect! Thank you so much for all of your help!
Customer 452483, October 31st, 2021
Other
I appreciate the help.
Customer 452567, March 18th, 2022
English 101
Perfect! Very informative! Appreciate all of your hard work! Thank you very much.
Customer 452483, September 22nd, 2021
Education
Great good
Customer 452555, February 14th, 2022
Sociology
Thank you so much! Appreciate it!
Customer 452483, November 8th, 2021
Communications
Thank you so much!
Customer 452461, June 23rd, 2021
Communications
came in earlier than I thought and has all the sources listed and cited in APA format, overall all perfect!
Customer 452461, May 24th, 2021
1159
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
2 pages
Average paper length
47%
Customers referred by a friend
OUR GIFT TO YOU
20% OFF your first order
Use a coupon 24/7HELP and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 20% OFF Order in Chat
Open chat
Chat with us Live Here
Get in Touch with Our Live Chat Agents via WhatsApp on +1(346) 416-0954. Get Unlimited Access to Answers on Any Queries With Your Paper.