The Upper Chamber Through Which Blood Enters the Ventricles Vocabulary
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Vocabulary 4: Cardiovascular
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.
The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease. It is estimated that dietary risk factors are associated with 53% of CVD deaths. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor sleep, among other things. High blood pressure is estimated to account for approximately 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco accounts for 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6%, and obesity 5%. Rheumatic heart disease may follow untreated strep throat.
It is estimated that up to 90% of CVD may be preventable. Prevention of CVD involves improving risk factors through: healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial. Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can decrease the risk of rheumatic heart disease.[needs update] The use of aspirin in people, who are otherwise healthy, is of unclear benefit.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. Together CVD resulted in 17.9 million deaths (32.1%) in 2015, up from 12.3 million (25.8%) in 1990. Deaths, at a given age, from CVD are more common and have been increasing in much of the developing world, while rates have declined in most of the developed world since the 1970s. Coronary artery disease and stroke account for 80% of CVD deaths in males and 75% of CVD deaths in females. Most cardiovascular disease affects older adults. In the United States 11% of people between 20 and 40 have CVD, while 37% between 40 and 60, 71% of people between 60 and 80, and 85% of people over 80 have CVD. The average age of death from coronary artery disease in the developed world is around 80 while it is around 68 in the developing world. Diagnosis of disease typically occurs seven to ten years earlier in men as compared to women.
There are many cardiovascular diseases involving the blood vessels. They are known as vascular diseases.
Coronary artery disease (also known as coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease)
Peripheral arterial disease – disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs
Cerebrovascular disease – disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain (includes stroke)
Renal artery stenosis
There are also many cardiovascular diseases that involve the heart.
Cardiomyopathy – diseases of cardiac muscle
Hypertensive heart disease – diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure or hypertension
Heart failure – a clinical syndrome caused by the inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood to the tissues to meet their metabolic requirements
Pulmonary heart disease – a failure at the right side of the heart with respiratory system involvement
Cardiac dysrhythmias – abnormalities of heart rhythm
Inflammatory heart disease
Endocarditis – inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves.
Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart, caused most often by viral infection and less often by bacterial infections, certain medications, toxins, and autoimmune disorders. It is characterized in part by infiltration of the heart by lymphocyte and monocyte types of white blood cells.
Eosinophilic myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium caused by pathologically activated eosinophilic white blood cells. This disorder differs from myocarditis in its causes and treatments.
Valvular heart disease
Congenital heart disease – heart structure malformations existing at birth
Rheumatic heart disease – heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a group A streptococcal infection.