I. Begin by introducing the topic of volunteering & why it is important to study. a. Eg: Why is volunteering important to human beings (or our society)? b. Or, begin with introducing the fact that psychologists have been studying volunteering for at least half a century (since the 50’s at a minimum) because it is so important because of the reasons below i. Give examples (emergency situations, natural disasters, fund raising, science, social science, education) ii. What role does/may psychology play? II. Then, generally introduce an example of social scientists who have studied volunteering (Rosenthal & Rosnow) or discussed it in literature reviews. a. Example: In a large literature review R & R (date) noted that research has identified two, broad categories of factors that have been found to influence volunteering. These categories include: i. Personality factors (determinants)-define. ii. Situational factors (determinants)-define III. Personality factors that have been identified by R & R (date) include…….list and/or explain. IV. Additional factors have been reviewed: introduce Schacter (date). a. What was he interested in? What was his theory and/or basis for research? b. What was his hypothesis based on this theory? c. What did he do/what did he find? (there are not specifics available, but you know that based on his belief about B.O. he believed F.B. would volunteer more than LB. V. Who followed Schacter? (Hint: Capra & Dittes, date). a. What did they base their research on (what did they say about Schacter’s research and what it implied)? b. What did they do and find? c. What does it mean? VI. Do the same for the following researchers, being sure that you use transitions and all of the details that we went over in class for all of the personality researchers. a. Altus i. Make sure you not only discuss Ward’s interest, but also discuss the overrepresentation issue as noted: ii. In overrepresentation of students in research iii. In overrepresentation of students on college campuses more generally iv. Note prior research that substantiated this overrepresentation hypothesis (did schacter or C & D confirm this (or have data that did)? b. Ward c. Suedfeld VII. Taking all of the research together, what is our prediction regarding the personality factor of Birth Order and Volunteering (note, you can eliminate the group vs. individual hypothesis because we will not be able to analyze it) VIII. Next, make a transition to the situational factors. For example, “researchers have also found that situational factors may influence volunteering behavior. As noted above, situation determinants are (define). Specifically, in the same literature review R & R (date) identified the following factors that have been identified as situational influences of volunteering behavior…(list/define/describe). IX. An additional example: McDonald (date) noted that…..name explain McDonald’s belief about volunteering and related factors (The literature listed at least two things he researched-in some coherent order, and with a transition explain what factor(s) he discussed and/or studied X. What other factor was noted by McDonald ? (For both use some/all of the below questions to guide you? a. What did McDonald believe? b. What did he do? c. What did he find? d. Interpret? XI. Who else studied situational determinants (hint R & B (date))? a. We base our study upon theirs’ b. What did they believe, what was their hypothesis? c. How did they study it? What did they do? d. What did they find? e. What does it mean? XII. What did Rosenbaum (alone) do to follow up? a. What did he do, and how? b. What did he find? c. What may it mean? XIII. In general, taken together, what does the literature on situational determinants indicate to you? XIV. What, specifically is our hypothesis for the situational hypothesis? (remember, we will tie it together, and correct any issues in the discussion—here just discuss the hypothesis) XV. Note: you should NOT discuss any part of the method or procedure of our study here. JUST THE HYPOTHESIS a. DO not discuss what happened when you collected data b. This is ONLY a literature review……based on what previous people have found. Thus, pretend like you have not collected data when you write that hypothesis out for both personality and situational factors
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